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Title 11
Chapter 19 Ejectment

In what case the action lies.
A civil action seeking ejectment as relief may be maintained in all cases where the plaintiff islegally entitled to the possession of the land sued for and demanded. Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-1.

Power of courts over proceedings.
The court in which an action of ejectment may be brought or be pending may exercise over the proceedings therein the like jurisdiction and control as heretofore exercised in the action of ejectment, so as to insure a trial of the title only, and of actual ouster when necessary, and for all other purposes for which such jurisdiction was heretofore exercised.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-3.

Who may be made defendants.
If the premises for which the action is brought be actually occupied by any person, such actual occupant shall be made a defendant in the suit; and all other persons claiming title or interest to or in the same may also, in all cases, be joined as defendants. If the premises be not occupied, the action shall be brought against some person exercising acts of ownership over the premises claimed, or claiming title thereto or some interest therein at the commencement of the suit.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-5.

Landlord notified and admitted to defend.
Every tenant sued in a civil action seeking ejectment as relief shall forthwith give notice thereof to his landlord, under penalty of three (3) years' rent of the premises, to be recovered by the landlord or his representatives in a civil action. The landlord of such tenant, or any other proper person, shall, by leave of the court or judge, be admitted to appear and defend the action in all cases where the same would have been allowed heretofore, and either separately or jointly with the tenant. Any person admitted to defend as landlord in respect of property whereof he is in possession only by his tenant, shall state in his answer that he defends as such landlord, and such person shall be allowed to set up any defense he has heretofore been allowed to set up, and no other. Any judgment in such action shall have the same effect for or against such person so admitted to defend as if he had been named in the complaint and regularly served with process. Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-9.

Reversioner or remainderman admitted to defend.
If a tenant for life or lives be impleaded concerning the land holden, the person to whom the reversion or remainder belongs may come into court at any time before judgment, and shall be admitted to defend his right.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-11.

Default of tenant for life not to prejudice.
If a tenant for life or lives, when impleaded, make default or give up the tenement demanded, or if the judgment be given on such default or surrender, the person to whom the reversion or remainder belongs after the determination of the life estate, shall not be prejudiced or injured by such default, surrender, or judgment. Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-13.

The consent rule, and all fictions heretofore used in a civil action seeking ejectment as relief, are abolished; and the action shall be commenced by filing a complaint in the name of the person claiming the premises in question, as plaintiff against the defendant. The complaint shall describe the premises with such certainty as will distinctly apprise the defendant of their description and situation, and so that from such description possession may be delivered. If the plaintiff claim only an undivided interest therein, it shall state such interest. If the plaintiff claim more than he is entitled to, he may, nevertheless, recover so much as he shall prove title to.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-15.

Answer and defense.
The defendants, or any of them, shall be allowed to answer or otherwise defend the action, either jointly or separately. The answer, if the defendant do not admit the plaintiff's title, shall be "not guilty," which shall be filed within the like time as required in personal actions; and under said answer the defendant may give in evidence any lawful defense to the action not inconsistent with the other provisions of this chapter. Any defendant may defend for a part only of the premises in
question; and in such case the part shall be described in the answer with the same certainty required in the complaint. Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-19.

Pleading amended as to description of premises.
If the premises be not described with sufficient certainty in the complaint or answer, the court or judge may order the pleading to be amended so as to contain a sufficient description. If either party fail to comply with such order, judgment may be entered as for want of a complaint or answer, according to the circumstances of the case.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-21.

Forms of proceedings.
Declarations, writs, and pleas in the form or to the effect of the precedents appended hereto, shall be good and sufficient for all purposes in proceedings under this chapter.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-23.

Form of declaration.
"The State of Mississippi In the circuit court ____term,
County of _______ A.D. ____

"A B, plaintiff, claims the right to possession of a tract of land, situated in ---- County, containing ---- acres, more or less, and being more particularly described as follows: (here insert legal description of premises); and that the defendant wrongfully deprives him of the possession thereof, for which damage in the amount of ---- Dollars are here demanded. "E F, Attorney for Plaintiff."

If mesne profits be demanded, add to the above form the following:

"And the plaintiff also demands of the defendant the sum of ---- Dollars for the use and occupation of the said land by the defendant.
Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-25.

Right to discover details of claim or title to premises.
After issue joined in ejectment, either party may discover the details of the other's claim or title to the premises in question, and the response thereto shall include a short abstract of such documentary evidences of title as the party may intend to give in evidence on the trial, and a clear and succinct statement of the substance of any and all lost or destroyed documents the contents of which he may expect to prove. If title be claimed by inheritance, or if claimed on any fact which rests in parol, the facts shall be stated. In case of claim by inheritance, if either party demand it, the other shall give the ages of the several persons to whom the land descended, and the date of the death of the person from whom they inherited the premises. If any document referred to in the response to such discovery request made by law be recorded, it shall also state where it is recorded, or, if not recorded, then it shall include copies of such as are in the possession of the party, with the names of the subscribing witnesses thereto, if any. The discovery response shall be served within the time and in the manner prescribed by the Mississippi Rules of Civil Procedure and, in default thereof, evidence of such title shall not be given on the trial. In all cases, the evidence of title shall be confined to the matters contained in the discovery response.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-53.

Either party may have a survey made.
In case either party shall desire a survey to be made of the premises sued for in ejectment, he may cause the same to be made, after the institution of the suit, by applying to the clerk of the court in which the suit is brought to issue a commission for that purpose, directed to the county surveyor, or other surveyor, authorizing him to make a survey of the premises, and report the same, under oath, to the court at the next term. Such a survey shall not be made without first giving five days' notice to the opposite party at the time of making the same. The party at whose instance the survey was made shall pay the expenses thereof, but may recover the same as costs,
in case he succeed in the action and the judgment be that the survey was necessary in deciding the issue.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-55.

Action not abated by death.
The death of a plaintiff or defendant in ejectment shall not cause the action to abate, but it may be continued after timely substitution of parties as prescribed by the Mississippi Rules of Civil Procedure.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-57.

When title of plaintiff has expired.
If it appear at the trial that the plaintiff or plaintiffs, or one (1) of them, was, at the commencement of the action, entitled to recover possession of the premises in question, or of some part thereof, but that his or their title has expired at the time of the trial, the plaintiff or plaintiffs so entitled shall, notwithstanding such expiration, have a verdict according to the fact that he had such right of recovery at the commencement of the action, and shall recover his costs of suit; but as to the premises claimed, the judgment shall be that the plaintiff be involuntarily dismissed.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-81.

Trial of action between cotenants.
In case the action be brought by some one of several persons entitled as joint tenants, tenants in common, or coparceners, any joint tenant, tenant in common, or coparcener defending the action, may give notice with his answer or other defense that he admits the right of the plaintiff to an undivided share of the property, stating what share, but denies any actual ouster of him from the property. Upon the trial of the issue, if it appear that the defendant is a joint tenant, tenant in
common, or coparcener with the plaintiff, and actual ouster shall not be proved, then the plaintiff shall be involuntarily dismissed, with costs. But if it be proved either that the defendant is not a joint tenant, tenant in common, or coparcener, or that an actual ouster had taken place, then the jury shall so find by the verdict, and the plaintiff shall have judgment in accordance with the verdict for the recovery of possession and costs.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-85.

When a crop is growing on the land.
If the jury find for the plaintiff in an action of ejectment, and the defendant have a crop then planted and growing upon the premises in question, it shall assess a reasonable rent for the plaintiff to receive for the use of the premises, for such time as it may think necessary for the defendant to make and gather his crop. If the defendant enter into bond with security, to be approved by the court, or by the clerk in vacation, in a penalty of double the amount of rent so assessed, payable to the plaintiff, conditioned for the payment of the rent assessed at the expiration of the term fixed by the jury for the defendant to hold possession of the premises, then a writ of possession shall not issue upon the judgment in the action, until the expiration of the time so allowed by the jury. The bond shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the court, and, if forfeited, shall have the force and effect of a judgment, and execution may issue thereon against the principal and sureties as upon other judgments in the court.  Title  11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-87.

Proceedings as to crop upon affirmance of judgment in supreme court.
If a judgment in favor of the plaintiff in an action of ejectment be affirmed by the supreme court, and the appellant have a crop then planted and growing upon the premises in question, and shall file with the clerk of the circuit court in which the judgment was recovered an affidavit of the fact, and shall undertake, in writing, with such sureties and such sum as the clerk may require, to pay to the opposite party the rent which may be adjudged to be paid for the use and occupation of
said premises until the end of the current year, a writ of possession shall not issue until the end of the year, and the affidavit and security for rent shall be filed by the clerk among the papers in the case. The clerk may examine the parties and other persons on oath as to the value of such rent and the sufficiency of the sureties, and may require their statements to be written and signed by them. Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-89.

Judgment on the bond in proceedings involving crop.
If such rent be not paid, on motion of the plaintiff, a motion to assess damages shall be executed at the next or any future term of the circuit court to ascertain the value of the rent of said premises, and judgment shall be rendered on the verdict for the amount found by the jury against the parties bound on such undertaking for rent. If any have died, like proceedings shall be had as provided in case of the death of any of the sureties on the bond of a claimant of personal property levied on under execution before final judgment.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-91.

Exceptions to insufficient bond.
If the plaintiff allege that the amount of the security required by the clerk for rent to prevent the issuance of a writ of possession is insufficient, the circuit judge, in term time or vacation, shall hear the allegations and inquire into the matter, and may order a new undertaking for the rent to be given within such time as he shall prescribe; and if it shall not be given, a writ of possession shall be issued as if security for rent had not been given. Five days' notice of such complaint to the circuit judge shall be given to the opposite party. Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-93.

Mesne profits and compensation for improvements.
In all cases where the defendant in ejectment would be liable for mesne profits and damages, the plaintiff may declare for and recover the same in the action of ejectment, or he may have his action for mesne profits after the recovery in ejectment as heretofore. It shall be lawful in all cases for the defendant in ejectment, whether the plaintiff demand mesne profits or damages or not, or in an action of mesne profits, to plead the value of all permanent, valuable and not ornamental improvements made on the land by the defendant, or by any one under whom he holds, before notice of the intention of the plaintiff to bring the action, and all taxes that may have been lawfully paid on the land by defendant or those under whom he holds up to the date of trial, including interest, costs, and damages incident to such taxes; but a defendant shall not be entitled to such compensation for improvements or taxes unless he claim the premises under some deed or contract of purchase acquired or made in good faith. Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-95.

How improvements estimated and judgment therefor.
The jury shall find the actual cash value of such improvements and the amount of taxes paid, the value of the mesne profits and damages, and the actual cash value of the land without the improvements. Where the value of the improvements and taxes exceed the value of the mesne profits and damages, the defendant shall have a lien upon the land for the difference between the value of the mesne profits and the value of the improvements and taxes so found, and execution shall not issue in favor of the plaintiff until he shall have paid the amount so due to the defendant. Unless the plaintiff, within three months after the rendition of the verdict, pay the amount so due, the defendant may pay to the plaintiff the assessed value of the land with interest from the date of the verdict, and pay the costs of the suit, and thereupon the execution of the judgment for the recovery of the land shall be perpetually stayed. If the defendant fail to pay to the plaintiff the value of the land so assessed, with interest and costs of suit, within three months after the expiration of the time allowed the plaintiff for making payment, an execution shall issue for the sale of the land recovered in the ejectment. Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-97.

How proceeds divided in case of sale.
The proceeds of the sale, after payment of costs, shall be divided between the plaintiff and the defendant in proportion to the sums due them respectively as found by the verdict.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-99.

Reversioner or remainderman to have appeal.
If a tenant for life be impleaded, and judgment given against him for the lands or tenements, then the person to whom the reversion or remainder belongs at the time of such judgment, his heirs or successors, may have an appeal as well in the lifetime of the tenant as after his death. If the judgment be reversed, the tenant, if living, shall be restored to the possession of the lands or tenements, and the party prosecuting the appeal shall be entitled to the arrearages of rent for the
same. If the tenant be dead at the time of judgment given on the appeal, then restitution of the lands or tenements shall be made to the party prosecuting the appeal, together with the arrearages of rent. If the party prosecuting the appeal allege that the judgment first obtained against the tenant was by covin or assent, then restitution shall be made to the party prosecuting such appeal with arrearages of rent, although the tenant be living; but in such case the tenant may have a scire facias against the party appealing if he deny and traverse the covin or assent, but not otherwise.  Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-101.

Judgment as res adjudicata.
A judgment in an action of ejectment shall be conclusive as to the right of possession established upon the party against whom it is recovered, and upon all persons claiming from, through, or under such party, by title arising after the commencement of the action; but if any person against whom such judgment is recovered shall be, at the time of its recovery, an infant or person of unsound mind, the judgment shall not be a bar to an action commenced by such person, or any one claiming by inheritance from, through, or under him, within three years after the removal of his disability. Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-103.

Record may be recorded as a deed.
A certified copy of the complaint, the writ, the answer or other defense, if any, and the judgments in an ejectment suit may be recorded, without acknowledgment by anyone, in the proper record of conveyances of land in the county in which the land is situated; and the same shall be indexed as a deed from the unsuccessful party to the party in whose favor the final judgment is rendered. Title 11, Chap. 19, SEC. 11-19-105.


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